Here, we will look at socially motivated changes in language such as language reforms .. Available online at: Retrieved from http:// is never any one Retrieved from Shih, C., & Gamon, J. (). Web- based learning: Relationships among students motivation, attitude, learning styles and. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: How the use of gender-fair language affects . Available online at: .
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Language, Cognition and Gender.
Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and omtivation instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers’ support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria.
While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives Study 1: Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our dk indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts.
Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language. The line it is drawn.
The curse it is cast. The slow one now. Will later be fast. As the present now. Will later be past.
Motivation by Peer Carl on Prezi
For the times they are a-changin’. These lyrics by Dylan capture a rarely examined phenomenon in social psychology, that is, social reality changes over time and may do so even within a fairly short period. Here, we will look at socially motivated changes in language such as language reforms introduced to instigate and promote changes in social reality.
To our knowledge, such language policies’ effectiveness has eduho been examined. Such an examination would require a longitudinal approach with measurements being taken over several points of time. The disadvantage of such an approach is that the time within which changes are to happen is unspecified, which constitutes a serious challenge to the budgetary and time framework of any research.
We tried to overcome this disadvantage by using cross-sectional research that compares different speech communities at different stages of implementing a specific language reform. In languages where gender-fair language was httpp is still a matter of debate English in the s: McConnell and Fazio, ; Polish and Italian dww the first two decades of the twenty-first century: Mucchi-Faina, ; Merkel et al.
However, this conclusion may be premature as we still do not know the popular reaction to politically correct language htfp it has been implemented for a longer time. Positive effects of gender-fair language have been reported only for Germany, where this usage has been in practice for a longer time Vervecken and Hannover, Hence, over time, politically eduh language can be reasonably assumed to become a linguistic standard and thus may then trigger positive evaluation among its users.
We tested this assumption by comparing two speech communities where grammatical gender languages are spoken Polish in Poland and German in Austriawhich substantially differ with respect to gender-fair usage.
While pertinent language reforms have been implemented and acknowledged in Austrian German, moyivation language is rarely accepted and is often rejected in Polish.
Using the same research paradigm to examine these two countries and languages representing different stages of linguistic reform, allowed the indirect study of the longitudinal effects of socially motivated language reform. In languages with grammatical gender such as German and Polishmost gttp nouns and pronouns are differentiated as feminine or masculine. Therefore, the principle strategy employed to make a language gender fair is to have feminine forms fl human nouns used more frequently and systematically to make female referents visible.
This means masculine generics, that is, wwww masculine forms meant to represent both genders e. Additionally, feminine role names or job titles are introduced to designate female job holders explicitly e. However, across the two countries and languages, differences persist in the adoption of gender-fair language.
Two main reasons account for these differences. The first concerns the time of implementation. Since then, official regulations have been adopted in German-speaking countries. The implementation of gender-fair language has progressed so far that there is even a special Microsoft add-in for gender-fair German 1. In Austria, almost all universities and government institutions have their own guidelines for gender-fair language e.
Motivationstheorien nach Kirsten Tiggewerth-Kemper by Hans Peter on Prezi
Gendup, ; Technical University of Vienna: Presently, job advertisements must be phrased in a gender-fair way, e. However, in Poland, official regulations or guidelines for gender-fair language are absent and its use is rare. According to numerous researchers, the implementation of gender-fair language has reached different stages in Austria and Poland.
While creating feminine human nouns is fairly easy in German mostly by adding the feminine suffix – in to the masculine form, e.
In Polish, feminine forms of some role nouns can easily be derived with the suffix – ka e. Moreover, some feminine forms of job titles denote not only a feminine job holder but also an object e. Other job titles show a semantic asymmetry: Considering these differences, we hypothesized that reactions to gender-fair language would differ in Poland and Austria. In line with earlier findings, we assumed that reactions to gender-fair language would be more negative than reactions to traditional masculine forms in Poland, where gender-fair usage is still novel.
However, in Austria, where gender-fair language is motivwtion known and fairly established, eduhhi expected gender-fair forms to trigger highly positive reactions than the traditional use of the masculine.
We conducted three studies Studies 1 and 2 in Poland and Dp 3 in Austria with a similar design to examine how the use of gender-fair language or masculine forms affected respondents’ support for social initiatives Motivationn 1—3 addressing gender-related Studies 1—3or non-gender-related topics Studies 2 and 3. Study 1 was conducted in Poland via Internet.
The website hosting the study was motjvation by individuals, of whom left the first page edugi completing it. All of the described research was conducted according to the recommendations for online research of Eynon et al.
Participants were anonymous, expressed their consent to participate in the study, and were provided with the opportunity to obtain additional information on the study. The first study was a pilot study, motivztion at the time, no institutional approval was exuhi in Poland for pilot studies. As the study yielded interesting results, we decided to include them in the manuscript and applied for ethical approval for subsequent studies.
The study was conducted shortly before the elections of regional authorities in Poland and immediately before the deadline for the parties to submit lists of candidates to the Election Committee in October The elections were preceded by a nationwide debate about introducing quotas for women for the election lists. This was supported with oversignatures from Polish citizens.
At the time of the study, no quota system had been legally introduced; hgtp, the topic was very popular. On the website, the study was announced as a 3-min survey concerning democracy.
The introduction read as follows:. According to this motifation, including women in the election lists would signal genuine support for gender equality in a modern Poland. The introduction contained the following manipulation. The original version of this manipulation as well as of Study 2 and 3 is presented in the Supplementary Material available online. As women and men sometimes react differently to linguistic forms e.
Www reading the introduction, participants answered two questions: The slider was preset to the mid-point position and the answers were recorded at 1-point intervals ranging from 0 very negative to very positive. This scale served as a dependent measure indicating the evaluation of the gender equality initiative 2. To assess participants’ actual support for the quota, they were also asked whether they had signed the support sheet wwd the quota act during the previous months.
The matrix of correlation coefficients of the main variables of interest for all three Studies is available in Table 1. Finally, the participants who provided demographical data were asked for comments and were provided with debriefing information about the study.
To test our assumptions, we conducted a regression analysis with evaluation of the social initiative as a dependent variable. In the first step, we used linguistic form coded 0 for masculine and 1 for feminine and participant gender 0 for male and 1 for female as predictors, and support for the quota by signing the support sheet 0 for no and 1 for yes as a covariate variable in the analysis 3. The reason to use political attitudes as a covariate in our analysis was that political views can have an impact on the main dependent variable used in our studies, that is support for social equality initiatives.
This assumption stems from the fact that liberals do support social equality much more than the conservatives Jost et al. In the second step, we added an interaction term linguistic form and participant gendersince the effects of gender-fair language may be affected by this factor e.
The results indicated that the effects of linguistic form were moderated by participant gender. An examination of the conditional effects of the linguistic form using the Hayes macro revealed that the effect occurred only among the male participants: In other words, while women’s evaluations of the gender equality initiative were independent of the linguistic form employed, men’s evaluations were less favorable when the proponents were referred to in the feminine than in the masculine.
The means and SD for all the three studies are presented in Table 2 and the results of the regression analysis are presented in Table 3. Means and standard deviations of evaluation of initiatives presented with masculine or feminine forms for gender and non-gender related initiatives according to participant gender across all three studies.
Study 1 showed that the gender-related social initiative was evaluated less favorably by men when framed in a feminine than in a masculine form.
However, no such difference was observed for women. Earlier studies on gender-fair language already observed that men are less supportive of gender-fair language Jacobson and Insko, ; Matheson and Kristiansen, ; Parks and Roberton, and our results are consistent with these findings. Moreover, it must be emphasized that Study 1 was performed at a time when a heated debate on quotas was ongoing in Poland. Several issues regarding gender equality were raised at the time, and gender was a salient concept.
This may have increased the intergroup divides between men and women as well as men’s opposition to gender-fair language, which is often mediated by attitudes toward women in general Parks and Roberton, However, a serious limitation of Study 1 is that the social initiative presented was about gender equality.
This topic may have reinforced the effect of feminine forms in the description. Language reform in the direction of gender-fairness was indeed a political act and originated from the feminist movement Pauwels, Thus, novel feminine forms used in a gender context may be perceived as signaling feminism. In general, if gender-fair language is perceived as questioning traditional gender arrangements, negative effects should occur mostly in connection with gender issues.
However, if gender-fair language is rejected solely because of its novelty, then the effect observed in Study 1 should be independent of the goal of an initiative.
In Study 1 the support for a social initiative might have been influenced by both, the linguistic form and the readiness to accept gender quotas.